Administer abroad. Mobility, diplomacy and hospitality Italy-Europe (14th-19th century). Managing foreigners. Mobility, diplomacy and hospitality. Italy – Europe (14th – mid 19th centuries)
Foreigners and how they were generally perceived, how they were accepted or rejected, and how they experienced a life on the move – these are the three areas that this project aims to clarify by looking into mobility and its institutional and diplomatic administration in relation to Italy and its European context, in particular, France and the Hispanic and Germanic worlds. It will focus in particular on the way in which the perception of foreigners developed between the 14th century and the middle of the 19th century, from the point of view of religious, political, economic or scholarly institutions, on a local, national and transnational scale as well as from the point of view of those on the move, studied as individuals, organised groups or likely communities.
Religious, legal or theoretical standards of hospitality will be seen from the starting point of problems of terminology. We will look into the procedures for the registration, legitimisation, surveillance and integration of foreigners, migrants, travellers, émigrés, refugees and religious exiles on the part of the various administrative organisms, as well as diplomatic and consular authorities, in a context in which the standards and nature of hospitality were undergoing profound changes.
The change from “philanthropic” hospitality to the legal and administrative supervision of people on the move will be examined through an observation of the institutions of host countries as well as of diplomatic and consular networks. We will investigate how these people were controlled and treated, what kinds of hospitable places were available to them and what kind of social entities, particularly of a political nature, were created in cities. We will look into how foreigners were received in diplomatic circles, as well as their reception in other ways (from brotherhoods to hospices, from recommendations to subsidies, from the establishment of national areas to special centres).
The last part of the study will examine the way in which life on the move was lived, how people perceived it and found out about procedures, how they understood it, put up with it or subverted it. Care will be taken here to establish a clear typology according to categories of individuals: social categories (from the destitute to the elite), political categories (political exiles, émigrés…), and also “professional” categories (movement for artistic, scientific, commercial purposes…)
Casa de Velázquez, Institut Historique Allemand (Paris), Université Complutense de Madrid, Université de Naples Federico II, Università di Suor Orsola Benincasa, Université de Roma La Sapienza, Université de Sienne, Université Rovira i Virgili de Tarragone, Université Ca’Foscari de Venise
There are two components to this project: an epigraphic component (“Collective Research Project/PCR Vaison-la-Romaine and neighbouring municipalities. ILN, Vaison des Voconces.” N. Mathieu) and an archaeological component (excavations of the Vaison forum. C. Michel d’Annoville). This research is part of a broader, multiannual PCR based on the publication of Latin inscriptions of the town of Vaison des Voconces during Antiquity and the excavations of the Vaison-la-Romaine forum.
The epigraphic component of the project is in keeping with a longstanding epigraphic tradition of Grenobles, and, according to contemporary scientific practices, takes account of all of the inscribed monuments, in liaison therefore with archaeologists, architects and art historians. The archaeological component focuses on the excavations overseen by J. -M. Mignon these past three years at the Roman forum of Vaison-la-Romaine (Vaucluse). There is a scientific purpose to this research, for it is also aimed at training students in the techniques of excavation, ranging from the clearance work itself to ground surveys and identifying equipment.
Coordinator : N. Mathieu
Publication of the volume ILN, VII, 2, Voconces de Vaison (44th suppl. to Gallia) which will follow on from the volume ILN, VII – 1, Voconces de Die, published in 2012. This publication will not be possible during the PCR itself, the purpose of which is to facilitate the technical planning for the publication (prospecting, stocktaking, on-site verification, etc.). The PCR supports this preparatory objective.
Publications with a more specific archaeological focus are carried out under a different framework with other forms of support.
UGA / Faculty at Grenoble, researchers or doctoral students – Caroline Michel d’Annoville, Prof, Univ Paris IV – Nicolas Mathieu, professor of Roman history, UGA, Djamila Fellague, Lecturer, UGA – Bernard Rémy, emeritus professor of Roman history, UGA – Marianne Béraud, doctoral student, postgraduate teaching assistant, Roman history – Yann Bonfand, doctoral student.
Partners outside Grenoble, teachers (involved in the excavation programme or research on inscriptions)
Patrice Faure, lecturer (Université Lyon-3 – Jean Moulin) – Benoît Rossignol, Lecturer (Université Paris 1, Sorbonne) – DRAC PACA (Xavier Delestre, Regional Director of Cultural Affairs, Regional Archaeology Department) – David Lavergne, Chief Heritage Curator, SRA (Département of Vaucluse) – Jean-Marc Mignon, archaeologist (Département-level Heritage and Archaeology Service, Vaucluse) – INRAP (Vaucluse) – Joël-Claude Meffre, archaeologist (Vaucluse, Vaison) – Staff at the Vaison-la-Romaine municipal departments – Christine Bezin, Mélanie Bienfait, Julien Charles
14 April 2016 : 4th seminar on Vaison and its territory during antiquity
14 April 2017 : 5th seminar on Vaison and its territory during antiquity
13 avril 2018 : 6e ILN Vaison. Vaison et son territoire dans l’Antiquité
Project leader : Marta Materni
Project supervisor : Elena Pierazzo
Funded by the European Community with a Marie Curie Individual Fellowship, the DigiFlor project above all sets out to produce a complex digital edition, expressly designed for a French mediaeval text that has been very little studied to date : the Roman de Florimont.
This is a work in verse (around 13,000), written by Aymon de Varennes in 1118, which chronicles the Mediterranean adventures between Europe’s and Egypt’s shores of Alexander the Great’s grandfather.
Published one time, in the 1930s, in an edition that drew strong criticism because of the choice of witnesses which had a misleading influence on the text’s interpretations, the Roman de Florimont thus presents the great advantage of providing us with an almost hitherto unexplored area of study, where it is possible to experiment free from any previous prejudices.
What is more, its characteristics (restricted length, very distinct linguistic variants and editorial variants, existence of prosifications and translations) will make it possible to address, within a single context, almost all of the issues associated with passing down a mediaeval text, and therefore its publication. The project’s aim is therefore to think about how to broach these philological questions, all the while adopting the perspective of a digital approach.
By digitising the paper edition, it will be possible to :
1) think about the very format of a text’s edition and come up with alternatives to the traditional changeover between edition based on a single witness and scholarly edition ;
2) extend the conceptual limits of an edition to include, in the same context, either the useful textual analysis instruments for creating lexicons, statistical studies, etc. ; or the visualisation of the edited text alongside images of manuscripts, so as to show and highlight the whole process leading from the parchment to the screen.
Through this project, it will be possible to test, on a Romance language presenting highly distinctive graphic/grammatical variants, a series of open-source software programs, developed in an academic context and dedicated to automatic and semi-automatic text and scientific edition processing. The technical basis for the edition will be the standard XML-TEI.
The findings from this project will be freely accessible and primarily disseminated through :
1) a Florimont website with images and editions and integrated into the FonteGaia project ;
2) a working paper, Hypothèses. In 2019 the project will culminate in the organisation of a Franco-Italian study day at the LUHCIE laboratory.
The Fonte Gaia project brings together researchers and librarians keen to invest in a network for sharing information and discussing ideas on contemporary and international Italianism. Together, they produce, add to, comment on and update Fonte Gaia, The Digital Library and Fonte Gaia Blog, a cooperative working paper created on the platform Hypothèses.
From the outset, Fonte Gaia has been designed as a project that is open to external contributions and partnerships, national and international alike, with a view to forming an open and ever-changing community of researchers looking to exchange and add to the content produced and share their points of view and experiences. Interaction with the tool and contents is the Fonte Gaia’s guiding principle, along with the gathering of information and resources.
As both a subject for research and a tool, the overall apparatus formed by the “digital tools” developed during the project is intended to give Italianists from all over the world the chance to become readers, producers and commentators of digital editions and articles.
The cornerstone of the project entails developing a reference digital library for Italianists.
The method is that of the digital humanities : link together and harvest the content dispersed across the different digital libraries and databases ; select new corpora under the guidance of a scientific committee ; digitise, comment on and add to digital editions.
In December 2015, a European consortium agreement named CoBNIF (Consortium Bibliothèque Numérique Franco-Italienne) was signed between the Université Grenoble Alpes, Université Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle, Università degli Studi di Padova and Roma la Sapienza. The agreement is also currently being signed with the Università Alma Mater Studiorum in Bologna.
Project leader : Cécile Terreaux-Scotto, together with Jean-Marc Rivière (Aix-Marseille Université)
The scientific aim of this project, designed in partnership with the Aix Centre of Romance Studies (CAER) of the Université d’Aix-Marseille, is to create and develop a European network of researchers specialising in religious preaching across France, Italy and Spain in the 15th and 16th centuries. It will initially take the form of two study days and a publication in the issue of Filigrana. Cahiers d’études italiennes, 2019. The central thread running through Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli’s work published in 2005 (Pescatori di uomini. Predicatori e piazze alla fine del Medioevo) is the analysis of the way in which preachers harnessed the power of speech, that “communication instrument capable of sparking a loyal following”. Three years earlier, Lina Bolzoni (La rete delle immagini. Predicazione in volgare dalle origini a Bernardino da Siena), for her part, looked at the use preachers made of images as a means of winning their audience over. Inspired by these publications, this work cycle devoted to The art of preaching in the 15th century is aimed at examining how rhetorical instruments and portrayal mechanisms – whether visual or mental – were interwoven into sermons, so as to assess their impact on congregations and make out any changes in forms of devotion that such interaction brought about.
An oratory performance, preaching is above all about conveying authority : the preacher’s job is to convince his listeners, to prompt them to act in a specific way by using instruments primitively associated with language. But, as demonstrated by Michael Baxandall (Painting and experience in Fifteenth Century Italy), the introduction of perspective during the 15th century dramatically changed the visualisation process of audiences – endowing painting with a “moral sense”, subsequently forgotten, and familiarising them with the shaping of an image – within which a “historia” unfolds that, in the very way it is structured, draws parallels with exegetic analysis. In this way, the preacher’s discourse becomes part of a broader system, the church, where, more than during centuries past, it resonates – and sometimes perhaps even competes – with another discourse : that of the painter. Henceforth it is fascinating to observe the way in which these two discursive approaches are brought together, interwoven, set one against the other or ignored even during preachers’ sermons, as well as in the way they are received by followers, according to a complex interplay of repetition and reference which calls on the intellect, memory, sensory perception, emotions and intention.
A second key characteristic of preaching in the 15th century is that it communicates with two distinct spaces, the compatibility of which cannot be taken for granted : that of the church and that of the city. If we take two prominent figures that are representative of the century, the Franciscan Bernardino of Siena and the Dominican Girolamo Savonarola, what is distinctive about them is their altogether different relationship with the public space. Accordingly, although the former had obtained the reform of the Perugia statutes in 1425, his influence was primarily limited to the moral and spiritual realms. Savonarola did quite the reverse, preaching about public life in Florence and playing a key role in the institutional reforms of November-December 1494. And yet, although many studies have reviewed the instruments used by Bernardino in his sermons (the requirement for clarity, expressed by the famous dictum “parlare chiarozzo chiarozzo”, references to everyday life, body movements, language play through onomatopoeia, repetition and the use of his tablet, etc.), “technical” analysis of Savonarolan preaching has drawn considerably less interest : of he who once said “my words are an action”, we have retained the “action” rather than the “words”, the prophetic stance and use of words as a weapon rather than the way in which they exerted influence over their audience, the formative power of preaching at a time of civil unrest rather than the way it is acted out and received.
Admittedly, all sermons are texts of circumstance (if only owing to the constraints of the liturgical calendar), stemming from a didactic aim, and each of them, taken separately, is a work to be performed, intended to have an immediate effect on listeners. The weight of historical circumstance, of these “time conditions” on which Machiavelli focused his attention, nevertheless appears, with regard to the preachers who worked throughout the 15th century, to be of significant relevance, likely to open up wholly worthwhile analytical prospects as to the organisation and delivery of their speeches.
These are the guidelines that we would like to take further during these study days, the first of which will more specifically be given over to the rhetorical aspect of this general theme and the second to its figurative aspect. For the reasons mentioned above, much of our study scope will focus on the Italian Peninsula, but will also extend, for the sake of comparison, to the other European States, not least Spain, France and the Germanic countries.
To test these working hypotheses, several research strands will be addressed :
– how preaching fits into a specific civil or political context and its consequences on discursive practices
– analysing the rhetorical and/or figurative procedures through which a sermon’s performativity, the legitimising structuring of the words and how effectively they are received by followers play out ; developing a mental toolset for the audience and the way it fits into the brief time scale (over the sermon cycles of the same preacher) or the long time scale (from one generation of followers to the next)
– analysing the sources that preachers drew on to compose their sermons, and their textual or figurative redevelopment ; the use or re-use of a legacy of “technical” tools and motifs specific to the tradition of sermons ; the links of compliance with or rejection of the tradition of the Artes praedicandi
– the preacher’s metadiscourse on his own rhetoric and links between words and action : the “words as action” (translation of Irène Rosier’s expression “parole comme acte”)
– the procedures through which the interaction takes place between the preacher’s words and the followers’ visual or mental perceptions
– the role of concrete, mental, metaphorical or allegorical images in the mediation between the inside and outside world, as well as how they connect up with mnemonic efforts and/or sensory perception
– the links between orality and writing ; the problems associated with transcribing sermons (the filter of the transcriber, the degree of reliability, the oversight exercised by the preacher, the circulation of sermons)
– the spread outside Italy of preaching practices as developed by Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola, as well as the changes they underwent during this process.
Project leader : Marta Materni
Project supervisor : Elena Pierazzo
Initiated in November 2014, this project contains two components : a translation component and a research component.
The project bears on the translation of the family records written by Giovanni di Pagolo Morelli between 1393 and 1421. Not only do Morelli’s Ricordi count among the very first such family records published (1718), but, since then, they have also represented private Florentine writing across many Italian literature anthologies intended for Italian or English speakers. Although partial translations in English have helped to promote these records outside the borders of the Peninsula, to date French speakers only have access to one other Florentine family record, that of Bonaccorso Pitti (translated under the supervision of Adelin Charles Fiorato and published with the Presses du CNRS in 1991).
And yet Morelli’s Ricordi explore almost all of the roads ventured down on occasion by family men in their private documents, from geneaology to urban chronicles, and any advice that might be worth heeding to ensure good family management. By translating Morelli, French speakers are given an exceptional insight into Florentine culture at the beginning of the Quattrocento.
What is more, the specific features of private writing at the time – which make these texts difficult to understand – would merit consideration as a separate research strand in its own right. At a time when everyday language was beginning to gain official use in the literary domains and within institutions, one might wonder to what extent semantic and lexical uses were inspired by the Latin language or by speeches drafted in official, literary, religious and economic spheres.
To try and provide answers, the Workshop’s sessions (3 a year) are broken down into two stages :
– the morning is given over to translating several pages of the Ricordi. Worked on beforehand by a translator and two proofreaders, the text is presented to all of the Workshop members, with a view to discussing any outstanding issues or points that have proven difficult to interpret.
– the afternoon provides an opportunity to discuss the translation choices made by the Workshop members with respect to terminology. The point is to harmonise translation practices around shared choices, guided by the interpretation of the text and study of the sociopolitical context and merchant writing practices.
The Workshop members have common work tools at their disposal : an online research guide (morelli.hypotheses.org, ISSN 2496-6886) as well as a collaborative workspace on the service platform RENATER, access to which is reserved for Workshop members and where a glossary is drawn up collectively.
Partners : beyond the three LUHCIE members leading the project, the team of translators includes researchers from different research laboratories :
Laurent Baggioni, Triangle (UMR 5206), Université Lyon 3
Noémie Castagné, CEL (EA1663), Université Lyon 3
Maxime Castro, professeur de chaire supérieure (senior teaching fellow of post A-level preparatory classes for the Grandes Ecoles), Nancy
Ismène Cotensin, CIRRI (EA3979), Université Lyon 3
Romain Descendre, Triangle (UMR 5206), ENS de Lyon
Jean-Claude Zancarini, Triangle (UMR 5206), ENS de Lyon